A small pump irrigating an onion farm. (Photo by Hamish John Appleby / IWMI)
Small pumps are a viable solution for poor farmers
May 24, 2017
Balakrishnan Marimuthu dug two farm ponds, with which he grew coconuts to offset paddy loss this year. (Photo by Sharada Balasubramanian)
Farmers in coastal Tamil Nadu battle drought with smart farming
May 29, 2017
Fellows and Mentors

Many fellows but not too many ships to anchor

To make fellowships that connect with rural realities really worthwhile, it is necessary to provide pointed guidance through mentors who are ready to engage, a vital aspect that many of the programs are not addressing adequately
Fellows in rural India need serious handholding to make the effort effective. (Photo by Meghna Mukherjee)

Fellows in rural India need serious handholding to make the effort effective. (Photo by Meghna Mukherjee)

The summer months are months of internships and fellowships. Around this time of the year, many young women and men from premier institutions across the country are descending on rural India to have a firsthand exposure to village life in India’s heartland. The trend started a few years ago when everybody’s attention was drawn to the bottom of the pyramid by a management guru. It seems that corporate India rediscovered rural India, a market that was waiting to be understood and tapped.

That many bright minds are now prepared to engage with the rural reality in India during their studies is indeed a welcome sign. Thanks to generous contributions to various fellowships from the government, corporates and philanthropies, many youngsters spend time in rural areas ranging from a few months to two to three years. However, what is worrying is the fact that at the end of such fellowships, there are not many mentors who will help these youngsters to sustain their energies. We are thus likely to lose valuable human capital that otherwise could have been an asset in the grand project of transforming rural India.

My first exposure to the rural reality was 40 years ago when after completing my board examination, my mentor late V. V. Pendse of Jnana Prabodhini in Pune encouraged me to travel to rural Tamil Nadu to participate in the work of installing hand pumps. That experience of one month in parched villages of Ramanathpuram and Madurai has stayed in my mind. Much later as a professional, at Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA), I got the opportunity of experiencing the reality of rural India through the eyes and ears of a dairy farmer. Those two fellowship experiences nurtured my sensitivity about and understanding of rural India.

Numerous fellowships

At one count, there are at least 20-30 national fellowship initiatives. The notable among these are the Prime Minister’s Rural Development Fellows (PMRDF) that was launched by the previous government. The minister who conceived of the scheme was quoted to have defined the role of the PMRDFs as Sherpas to the District Collector. The fate of the PMRDF scheme after the first two batches is not known.

The Teach for India fellowships saw a large number of volunteer fellows offering their time to educate those less fortunate. In Maharashtra, a renowned NGO launched a NIRMAN fellowship program (Nirman meaning new creation) with a mix of academic and field curriculum. I have also come across Gandhi fellowship and Buddha fellowship offered in recent times by philanthropies.

New energies

These fellowships are providing a new entry point for youngsters willing to engage with rural realties. This is indeed a positive and welcome sign. Such fellowships offer options to youngsters who want to do something but are not clear of what. They have not enrolled into standard social work and rural development courses. But there is a strong desire to explore alternative career options that are more meaningful to them. So, if an engineer employed in a software company or an analyst trained for corporate finance wants to take risk, such fellowships offer that person to test his or her inclination.

The fellowships, be it within the government administration or placement with the NGOs, can potentially open new possibilities for the host organization. Fellows often come up with new ideas, challenging the status quo, bringing in alternative technologies and or processes. The young entrants are coming with fresh perspectives and are not constrained by circumstances, hierarchy and past baggage that sometime can be limiting factor. Many of them are data and tech-savvy.

The fellows can also deliver concrete results if their projects and task boundaries are clearly defined and they are given a specific and doable terms of reference that can be accomplished in the fellowship period. I am aware of a student project during 1990s that tested the feasibility of an ice-cream product line for a dairy cooperative federation. The host organization went ahead with this feedback and subsequently launched a new product line that became a huge contributor to the business activities. The seed was sown in the fellowship study.

It is also foreseeable that many of the fellows while being tentative at the entry level might find their true calling at the end of the fellowship period. Some of them might commit to choose development sector as a serious long-term career option. Thus, in addition to the postgraduate courses in social work, the fellowship route is another potential route for lateral entry of talent to address the challenges of rural India and its myriad problems.

But no ships to anchor

However, experience of many fellowships suggests that the development sector is probably not fully utilizing the potential this route offers. In fact, the worry is that in the absence of many ships to anchor, we might end up in losing a valuable resource and entry point for building the human potential of the developmental sector. The need for anchors and mentors rises from the fact that the fellows are high on enthusiasm and but might lack domain knowledge. They need handholding and active coaching in the initial months.

One of the main challenges and the cause for worries is lack of competent mentors and anchors to guide and coach the fellows. It is easier said than done. The fellows are left to fend for themselves, with no clear guidance and advice on what and how to accomplish the tasks expected of them in the fellowships. The host organizations tend to use their skill sets for menial tasks such as tabulating data in excel sheets or translating annual report of the organization from vernacular to English or at best preparing a power point presentation for the CEO.

In some situations, the immediate supervising authority is not even aware of the role and expectations of such fellows who are dumped on them as a result of some top-down scheme. It was reported that some fellows in the PMRDF did not have a table space for quite some time to begin with because the district administration was not aware that there are fellows assigned to their office. This author encountered a situation in a PMRDF training program (where he was a faculty) that more than half of the batch bunked the training sessions for which they were paid. It was told that they were preparing for the impending civil services test.

Critical function of mentoring

Mentoring and coaching has become a cliché. It is an intensive process that demands time and energy, not just from the mentee but also from the mentor. Unfortunately, very few seniors in the government or in the developmental sector organizations have that kind of time or are ready to invest such energy. The senior leadership is too preoccupied in running and managing the daily chores and has little time left for such a critical task. As a result, many fellows have gone through times of anxiety, being confused in the maze and eventually losing their drive and motivation to contribute.

Unfortunately, organizations hosting fellowships are also busy in the event management of fellowship programs. More attention is given to the visibility of such programs rather than the soul of the program. Soft dimensions such as mentoring and coaching are relegated to background.

Fellowships are a valuable opportunity for a large number of organizations to attract new talent. There is an urgent need to pause and reflect on what can be best done to get the maximum out of such fellowships. We need a large number of ships to help fellows anchor first and then sail for long voyages.

Ajit Kanitkar is a Consultant for Tata Education and Development Trust and a Member of the research team at Centre for Development and Research in Pune. Prior to this, he was Program Officer at Ford Foundation, India office, and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, both in New Delhi. He taught at Institute of Rural Management, Anand, during 1992-1995.

Ajit Kanitkar
Ajit Kanitkar
Ajit Kanitkar is a Consultant for Tata Education and Development Trust and a Member of the research team at Centre for Development and Research in Pune. Prior to this, he was Program Officer at Ford Foundation, India office, and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, both in New Delhi. He taught at Institute of Rural Management, Anand, during 1992-1995.

8 Comments

  1. Meena Gokhale says:

    There is one more fellowship program, not mentioned in this article, but progressing very well. It is Youth for India Fellowship supported by State Bank of India. The SBI YFI programme takes care of all the lacuna’s mentioned here. With SBI YFI, each mentee is supported by two mentors. One domain mentor and another local mentor. The mentees , who work in coordination with both mentors, have accomplished good work in their fellowship

  2. Innus Khan says:

    Thanks you very sir much for your insight on issue, very learning full.

  3. Emmanuel Murray says:

    Wonderfully articulated.

  4. Liby Johnson says:

    Thanks Ajit for writing on a very pertinent topic. I feel the fellowships have great value, if used in a meaningful way. For one, the limited time-frame of fellowships, while being attractive to a larger number of youngsters, is not very meaningful to the host organisation or situation. The learning phase for youngsters handling development challenges (even if they come after relevant subject-matter education) is not less than one year. It is my experience that even the best such talent, given a very positive enabling environment, starts contributing constructively, only after 9-15 months of being in the situation. A 2-year fellowship often then, turns out to be useful extension of the education to the youngster and a good addition to her/his CV; net returns to society being sub-optimal to the efforts/resources invested.

    My fear is that the Fellowship approach to the HR issue is increasing being seen as the panacea to the HR crisis in the development sector. Three decades ago, we pushed up non-formal education because we could not rise up to meet the challenge of providing formal education to the rural poor. In the past decade, we have pushed the skilling approach because we are unable to correct anomalies in our education system in terms of making learners job-worthy. The ‘fellowship-fetish’ to my mind is a similar attempt at band-aid solutions. Just as NFE went out of vogue; as skills increasing is going out, the fellowship mode will also soon find itself less favoured. The basic problems will continue, one way or the other.

    I am not a pessimist to leave it at that. Educational institutions that traditionally catered to the development sector have to learn from the positives of the fellowship approach and adapt their courses. Internship (which is a fellowship of a shorter duration) should become core and integral parts of the curriculum and if necessary duration of the courses should be extended. The fellowship approach should be followed for non-specialised graduates as a stepping stone for a more specific subject matter learning. This obviously would require stronger links between the development ‘industry’ and the educational institutions and will require the academic sector to get more ‘real’. Development organisations should prepare itself for sturdier HR policies that cater to the life-cycle of learners becoming professionals/meaningful contributors at work.

  5. D.N Ghatge says:

    i would love to some work like this I need guidence .I dont know weather Iam fit for this both in terms of age & qulification.

  6. Sharad Pant says:

    Hey everybody! My organisation @ALC India is launching the Transforming India Initiative @TII Fellowship, a 2-year fellowship program for entrepreneurs & enterprises. TII provides a platform through which fellows will be transformed from job-seekers to responsible entrepreneurs who will design and establish enterprises built on systematic solutions to address the most pressing challenges facing India today. Please visit our website at http://www.alcindia.org/tii to know more.

  7. Malcolm Harper says:

    Thank you, Ajit, this problem has many parallels with the outcomes (or lack of them) from the experiences which thousands of young people from richer countries have during the so-called ‘gap years’ between school and university which they spend in poorer (and warmer) places. We send a few young women ourselves to help at the P.U.S.S. girls’ school which we support in Odisha (www.orissa.0rg.uk) .

    They nearly always get slightly unwell, they usually contribute a great deal, and they invariably learn a great deal themselves. Maybe the first thing we have to be clear about in such attachments, fellowships or whatever is that the chief beneficiary will almost certainly be the fellow, the volunteer, her or himself; the good things they do for the poorer people with whom they spend time are a bonus.

    Malcolm Harper